双语阅览2020年改进心理健康的5种科学方法 导读：1. practice optimism以悲观的心态理论The studies are positive: Looking on the bright side of life really is good for you. Optimists have a 35% less chance of havin a heart attack or stroke are m......
1. practice optimism
The studies are positive: Looking on the bright side of life really is good for you. Optimists have a 35% less chance of havin a heart attack or stroke are more likely to eat a healthy diet and exercise regularly have stronger immune systems; and even live longer. In fact a 2019 study found people with the most positive outlook had the greatest odds of living to 85 or beyond.
钻研给出了正面的证实：正视日子的亮光一面切实其实对人有优点。悲观主义者心脏病发生发火或者中风的概率要比其他人低35%，一路他们更有或者 入安康膳食，按时练习，存在更强健的免疫服从甚至存在更长的寿数。事实上， 2019年的一项钻研发明，心态最悲观的人寿数也是最长的，他们可能活到85岁甚至以上。
Now let"s get real: Being an optimist doesn"t mean you ignore the stress of daily life. Who can do that? It simply means that when crummy things happen you don"t blame yourself unnecessarily. If you face a challenge or obstacle you"re more likely to see it as temporary or even positive allowing you to learn and grow.
Optimists also believe they have control over their fate and can create opportunities for good things to happen.
Not a natural optimist? No worries. Science has shown you can train your brain to be more positive. only about 25% of optimism is programmed by our genes anyway.
According to a meta-analysis of existing studies using the "Best possible Self" technique is one of the most effective ways to increase your optimism. It"s based on exercises that ask you to imagine yourself with all of your problems solved in a future wher all of your life"s goals were achieved.
In one study people who did this for only 15 utes a week over an eight-week period became more positive and remained that way for nearly six months. What do you have to lose?
2. Start volunteering
A prayer attributed to St. Francis of Assisi tell us "It is in giving that we receive."
Turns out he was scientifically right. Studies have shown that putting the well-being of others before our own without expecting anything in return or what is called being altruistic stimulates the reward centers of the brain. Those feel-good chemicals flood our system producing a sort of "helper"s high."
There are physical benefits too: Studies show volunteering imizes stress and improves depression. It can reduce the risk for cognitive impairment. It can even help us live longer.
Even if you have little time to offer just the act of giving has been shown to improve our health possibly by temporarily reducing our sense of pain.
A new study found that people who said they would donate money to help orphans were less sensitive to an electric shock than those who declined to give. In addition the more helpful people thought their donation would be the less pain they felt.
3. Be grateful
We heard a lot about the benefits of thankfulness in the last decade and that is backed by science: Counting our blessings protects us against anxiety and depression and boosts optimism. Need more proof? Middle-schoolers who practiced gratitude exercises had less problem behavior.
One of the best ways to make thankfulness a part of your life say experts is to keep a daily journal. Before you go to bed jot down any positive experience you had that day no matter how small.
If you do that for one ute each morning and evening that sense of appreciation can broaden to others in your life and bolster optimism and better mental health.
4. Bolster your social connections
"people who are more socially connected to family to friends to community are happier they"re physically healthier and they live longer than people who are less well connected" said Harvard psychiatrist Robert Waldinger in his popular TEDx talk.
The proof for this comes from the Harvard Study of Adult Development which tracked 724 Boston men for more than 75 years and then began following more than 2000 of their offspring and wives.
"The clearest message that we get from this 75-year study is this: Good relationships keep us happier and healthier. period" Waldinger said.
And you don"t have to be in a committed relationship or have scores of pals to get this benefit. Instead it"s the quality of the relationship that matters he said.
"High-conflict marriages for example without much affection turn out to be very bad for our health perhaps worse than getting divorced" Waldinger said. "And living in the midst of good warm relationships is protective."
5. Find your purpose
Finding a sense of purpose contributes greatly to well-being and a longer happier life experts tell CNN.
University of pennsylvania psychologist Martin Seligman who co-founded the field of positive psychology says a sense of purpose will come from being part of something bigger than ourselves. He points to religion family and social causes as ways to increase meaning in our lives.
It doesn"t have to be a traditional religion to be effective according to Lord Richard Layard one of Britain"s most proent economists and the author of several books on happiness.
In his landmark book "Happiness: Lessons From a New Science" he says spiritual practices can range from meditation to positive psychology to cognitive therapy.
"If your sole duty is to achieve the best for yourself life becomes just too stressful too lonely -- you are set up to fail. Instead you need to feel you exist for something larger and that very thought takes off some of the pressure."